Formation of pyrimidine dimers (DNA damage) can be evaluated quantitatively in 2D culture, or alternatively visually in 3D cultures (above).

Age-related physical damage

Aging challenges can physically damage a range of cellular structures.

Of particular interest is the damage to DNA and proteins, due to their known association with aging in vivo.

DNA damage following UV-exposure can be measured via comet assay to evaluate DNA fragmentation, or through the formation of pyrimidine dimers that form between cross-linked nucleotides.

Pyrimidine dimers can be detected in monolayer culture via ELISA, or alternatively in 3D epidermal cultures via immuno-staining of histological sections.

Another well documented feature of aging in vivo is the formation of oxidized proteins, which have been found to increase by approximately 50% during a typical lifespan.

Oxidised proteins can also be measured in vitro following aging challenges by ELISA.

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