Age-related physical damage
Aging challenges can physically damage a range of cellular structures.
Of particular interest is the damage to DNA and proteins, due to their known association with aging in vivo.
DNA damage following UV-exposure can be measured via comet assay to evaluate DNA fragmentation, or through the formation of pyrimidine dimers that form between cross-linked nucleotides.
Pyrimidine dimers can be detected in monolayer culture via ELISA, or alternatively in 3D epidermal cultures via immuno-staining of histological sections.
Another well documented feature of aging in vivo is the formation of oxidized proteins, which have been found to increase by approximately 50% during a typical lifespan.
Oxidised proteins can also be measured in vitro following aging challenges by ELISA.